Man and Nature can Coexist
BUT it needs to be a case of the Environment over Profit.
Petition Details and Update can be found following the Plastic, Plastic, Plastic, Section.
(Please Scroll Down).
Some Examples of 'Bad Practice' and
Some ideas on how to improve.
The Scottish government coined the phrase, "Maximising Sustainability", it was an attempt to gain support from commercial industries during the scrutiny of the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010. The words, 'maximise' and 'sustainable' when considering the marine environment do not fit comfortably in the same sentence.
The use of 'No-Take-Zones' would however go some way in sustaining the future use of Scotland's marine resources.
2019 has seen a ‘Teenage Take-over’: Politicians and governments are failing both us and the marine environment, teenagers still at school have picked up the campaign, highlighting the MAJOR issues which face Global Concerns, this IS their future!
Will we listen, more importantly, will we ACT? Will our actions be enough? Will our actions be in time?
It is about time that environmental issues were taken 'outside' of political parties...
A Cross-Party, A Cross-Country Concern! A future that actually utilises the Precautionary Principle, a future that actually understands and defines the word and meaning of ‘SUSTAINABILITY’ as an environmental criteria for the long term not as is often seen as a cheap publicity stunt, banded about like confetti for the advantage of short term commercial activities.
EU & UK 'Protection'
Part of an SAC
(Special Area of Conservation)
for Common Seals.
38 were shot in 2 days
50 were shot in one season.
The salmon farm can be seen, the six ringed structures, along with feed barges. The floating structure nearest the haul-out carries a generator and fuel dump.
The closest structure seen in this Google image is 20m from the 'protected' haul-out.
About 40 years ago salmon farming in Scotland was seen as an industry to overcome employment issues in more remote regions and the islands.
The industry grew with little concern to the environment. Currently it appears that the Scottish government in interested in expanding, in order to sustain the Chinese market.
It should be noted that a one percent increase would require close to a 50% expansion in Scottish waters.
Currently little is done to mitigate issues created by the multi-national salmon farming companies. These issues include; pouring tons of chemical treatments in to the sea, shooting seals, not as a matter of 'last resort', as required by law but in the first instance. The latest 'advance' is to fish wild wrasse from elsewhere, exploiting these fish and killing them each salmon harvest.
These are just some of the issues, the concept of catching wild fish to feed them from already over exploited fisheries is yet another.
Lismore Special Area of Conservation (SAC)
The Scottish Sea Farms site within the Special Area of Conservation (SAC) for Common Seals.
Google Maps Image and position (2019) 560 32’55.9N 005029’02.2W. Don’t take our word for it check it out for yourself simply Copy & Paste: 56 32’55.9 N 5 29’02.2W and web search it.
The Lismore SAC is made up of five component islet areas around the main island of Lismore. There are currently 14 salmon farm cages within the bay close to this one designated haul-out, several feed barges and fuel dumps/generators, the largest of which actually contains a HOUSE!
Despite a declining seal population, mass (past) shootings, disturbance/harassment, including debris and mooring tackle on the islets, recent shooting under Marine Scotland License and three separate European Commission complaints, this salmon farm is still located there and little is done about it, apart from a 'management' group set up with restricted membership. When the farm is left ‘fallow’ (a salmon farming term, when there are no fish in the structures, supposedly to allow for the seabed to recover, normally insufficient time is allowed) some of the seals return.
One of the Five Component Sites that make up the Lismore SAC
(Google Image 2019)
Most issues concerning salmon farming could be mitigated by utilising 'closed-containment' pens; but they are more expensive and without public and/or government pressure, current damaging methods continues unabated.
This French trawler company had four of its fleet run aground in a matter of months. The waters around the west coast of Scotland are notoriously difficult with a limited buoyage system in place.
The outer isles experience storms and wild seas; the decision to disband the 'full-time' ocean going tug was fool hardy at best.
The folly of cut-backs in such a relentless remote environment is a retrograde step, it will only be a matter of time before the 'real' cost is felt.
A Coastguard, ocean going tug, pictured here refloating a French trawler which ran around.
Without an ocean going tug permanently situated on the west coast of Scotland serious incidents will occur, not a matter of if, rather when.
People - Part of the Problem, BUT Could be Part of the Solution!
At Marine Concern we run with the principle that we are part of the ecosystem, we could live alongside Scottish wildlife without adversely effecting the ecosystems that support them and the fisheries that arguably support both. This can only be done if we take stock of what we have done, what we are doing and stop damaging the marine environment that supports food stocks, the tourist industry and so much more.
The Royal Commission for Environmental Pollution's 25th Report; 'Turning the Tide' suggested that in order to maintain future extractions and preventing biodiversity loss we need 30 percent of Scottish seas to be 'No-Take-Zones'. These are areas that do exactly what it says; - NO-TAKE. Around the world areas that use areas of no take have seen greater fish diversity, larger species and more fish. Fishermen have targeted the boundaries of these reserves and have found greater catches for less fishing effort. We just need to make the change.
A reintroduction on the" mobile fishing fleet; of the 'Three-Mile Limit', preventing damaging dredging and benthic trawling in fish nursery grounds would be a start in the right direction.
A Common Seal shot during a 'Seal Conservation Order'; dispite being reported, no action was taken!
Pictures for Thought
Good Practice V's Bad Practice
When marine mammals indeed any animal interacts with us as long as we use caution any potential problem is minimised. Actively searching them out and contravening Marine Watching Guidelines is not good for the animals and maybe not good for us either.
Souviners, what used to be seen as the 'norm' is now frowned upon and may cause untold damage to vulnerable ecosystems.
This salmon farm is situated within the Lismore SAC, a protected area for common seals. The floating diesel generator can be seen to the right of picture just 20m from the protected haul-out. Despite so called protection seals are shot here. Acoustic deterrents are routinely used in an attempt to 'scare' seals from the area. This region is a known 'hot-spot' for porpoise, acoustic deterrents are known to adversely affect porpoise. Porpoise are 'protected'. This type of activity, along with many other offences are not sustainable.
Common Examples of Problematic Human Interaction with Sealife.
A sperm whale was reported in Oban Bay. People flocked to see this rare sight. The whale was well out of its normal habitat and was probably ill and distressed. Boats obstructed its passage and got far to close. This kayaker probably touched the whale with his kayak. Apart from not being ethical it is illegal and dangerous. Whales are a protected species.
When done sympathetically with nature, sea kayaking is probably one of the least invasive marine activities. Watching/approaching without due concern, such as getting too close to seals while they are hauled out can cause stampedes, which can kill pups. Seals need to 'rest' and warm as part of their lifecycle, especially during the breeding season. Harassment is now an offence in Scotland with potentially large fines and imprisionment.
Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic Plastic
The following pictures were taken in what is commonly thought of as a 'clean' sea loch.
They were also taken from the lochsides which run parallel to the prevailing winds; therefore
plastic accumulation would not be expected as at the leeward end of the loch.
The 'plastic' problem is Global and needs to be addressed from both a global and local perspective. As with single use plastic shopping bags we have proved that we can act and can make a difference. This issue is huge and needs to be addressed now, before it is too late, with an attempt to clear up the current mess which is now in the food chain, adversely affecting species and geological sediments.
Long term accumulation of plastics, some will never degrade
during our lifetimes.
Polypropylene, the World's second most widely produced plastic. Rope remains in tact for millennia. It kills indiscriminately.
Discarded and lost fishing nets continue fishing until they are recovered...
Deeply embedded plastic
within the strandline
Ring ties, bag handles and an array of other shapes trap animals of all sizes...please cut all loops and rings before putting out into the rubbish bins.
Marine Concern's petition ran over Dec. ‘18 - Jan. ‘19)
Calling on the Scottish Parliament to urge the Scottish Government to ensure that the salmon farming industry
solely utilises a closed-containment method with full water filtering in Scottish waters.
The PUBLIC PETITIONS COMMITTEE held on Thursday 7 February 2019,
the Committee agreed to write to the Scottish Government and key stakeholders to seek their views
on the action called for in the petition. (PE1715 on Closed-Containment for Salmon Farms in Scotland).
Closed-Containment for Salmon Farms in Scotland: References used, Further information and Links
Salmon farms were established in Scotland in the early 1970's, they were seen as a panacea to providing work in remote rural areas especially the western and northern islands of Scotland, as well as raising Scotland's GDP. Environmental concerns soon became evident and the industry gained a bad reputation in not complying with environmental legislation.
Poor practice was compounded by planning that was and still is based on terrestrial templates, very little that occurs in the marine environment can be on a par with farming on land. The Scottish government and its Agencies forged ahead with expansion with little thought to the environmental costs.
The salmon industry has seen a 50% increase in salmon production since the mid 1990's, the environmental damage has been recorded and much is now known about the devastating effects that mass production including its 'medicines' and 'treatments' have. We are now facing yet another 50% increase in production with what currently appears to be little change in the operation process.
Salmon is Scotland's second largest food exporter at an estimated £600million in 2017 but using out-dated production methods it comes at a cost to Scotland's pristine coastal waters and the other industries and reputation which reply on Scotland's past 'clean' credentials.
Salmon farming does not have to be the bad neighbour as it is currently referred to; there are alternatives such as 'closed-containment'. By utilising closed containment systems on land or afloat the industry could expand without causing more damage to the marine environment, save the fishing from depleted waters especially those that third world countries rely upon as their only protein source.
Several major issues surround salmon farming, namely that Planning is still seen as 'Presumption in Favour' of production, despite the damming findings concerning the salmon farming industry from the Scottish government's own, Environment, Climate Change and Land Reform Committee (ECCLR) Report, "The Environmental Impacts of Salmon Farming" and the Rural Economy and Connectivity Committee's (RECC) "Salmon Farming in Scotland" Report. The Scottish government is failing in addressing the issue it cannot even answer a request for the definition of 'sustainable', yet quotes the word widely. Scottish government and its Agencies along with Councils where applicable have developed a somewhat 'cosy' relationship making any real opposition very difficult. The multinational industry is well resourced and highly opposed to change, which affect profits.
There is insufficient space here to fully cover extant issues surrounding salmon faming, what follows is more of a list with further reading and references used. Two Reports cover the major issues particularly well; the Scottish government's own ECCLR Committee findings and the CRRU Report. Other links can be found at the end of this posting. Marine Concern's background has been to highlight current marine environmental situations using seals as top end predators and extensive background in seal/fish farm worker interactions, an example of industry's abuse to the systems, we will expand on this below.
Summary of Issues, which accompany current methods of salmon farming in Scotland.
Location of Salmon Farms has traditionally been problematic, positioned at the entrances of sea lochs and river mouths. They have also been sited in Sounds where there has been either insufficient tidal flows or excessive tidal flows, which could not be accounted for with the modelling methods at that time. This lead to a poor understanding of pollution problems, the treatment of lice for example has the capacity to wipe out entire trophic levels of crustaceans, especially copepods . Wild salmon have to 'run the gauntlet' risking contamination from farmed salmon. Acoustic deterrents are also a major issue to seals and cetaceans, effectively restricting access to much of Scotland's indented coastline.
Harmful algal blooms and toxic algaecan be an issue when the farms are sited in poor locations with restricted tidal flows such as is seen in many of Scotland's Fjordic lochs. Excessive nutrient loading is known to effect plankton production, which in turn can lead to altered nutrient ratios. Hypernutrication and anoxic conditions can adversely affect sea lochs; isolated waters can become anoxic with a catastrophic effect of entire benthic communities.
Escapesof farmed salmon can have an adverse affect on wild salmonids (salmon and trout). Recent estimates place escapes at 146,000 fish in Scotland each year. These have the ability to pollute the gene pool of the wild population and even when unable to breed have been seen to interfere with wild breeding salmon.
Stocking density. The European Food Safety Authority EFSA concludes that stocking density is a major factor affecting salmon welfare; high stocking of salmon can lead to increased aggression, physical damage to fish and decreased water quality. Compassion in World Farming CIWF suggests that high welfare status can be achieved with of 10kg of salmon per cubic metre of water.
The Scottish government does not hold data on stocking densities; furthermore, the Fish Health Inspectorate does not routinely conduct this information. The RSPCA under their 'Assured Food' standards set a maximum stocking density of 22kg per cubed metre but then they also allow the shooting of seals under their scheme!
Cleaner fish. A recently new 'idea' for combating the sea-lice issues on and around salmon farms has been the introduction of 'cleaner fish' namely wrasse and lumpsuckers. Yet, once again problems have occurred not least in the extraction of large quantities of fish caught from other areas. It should be remembered that salmon are carnivorous and they have been known to attack the cleaner fish. These fish themselves are not free from issues, one of which is that the wrasse tend not to feed below 6 degrees C. The cleaner fish are seen as 'disposable' after the harvest of the salmon.
Nobody knows how many seals are shot each year under licenses issued by Marine Scotland, part of the Scottish government.
no authority is actually counting! Bad enough you might think but read on, it gets worse, much worse.
The official Marine Scotland website will tell you that 245 Grey Seals and 113 Common or Harbour Seals were shot during the one year period covering 2017, but this is based on self reporting from an industry that has a very poor record for complying with environmental legislation (see the estimating methods devised by Marine Concern and accepted as the current best up to date method by several NGO's below).
PBR's and Counts
Permitted Biological Removal (PBR's) methods are used to determine how many seals can be 'taken', without having an adverse affect on the population. By definition when a population is in decline, the PBR should be zero but government paid scientists refuse to stand up to the mark.
Under the European Commission's Habitats Directive, a report on the 'conservation status' of species must be submitted every six years. In the UK this falls on the Special Committee on Seals and in Scotland the counts are conducted by the Seal Mammal Research Unit (SMRU). Counts were done on a yearly basis but now it appears that a rolling estimate over a five-year period has been adopted. This method cannot be as accurate as yearly counts and opens the whole system up to short-comings during a crisis, such as the PDV virus out breaks which have decimated huge colonies of Common Seals around Europe, up to 85% in some areas.
Making matters worse is the use of 'polygon' counts and alteration of the sizes of the polygons or the choosing of different populations, which has the ability to off-set the 'decline' ratios on Scotland's west coast.
Seals are inquisitive animals, they like to investigate; structures in the sea and oceans are known to attract species including fish, fish attract other predators, many seals will approach salmon farms as a result of these additional interests including wild fish. Many salmon farms have been placed along seal transit routes some even in Special Areas of Conservation for seals and even in protected areas Marine Scotland deem it fit to issue licenses to shoot seals.
The Scottish Rural College (SRUC), Inverness, currently holds a contract to record and investigate seal strandings in Scotland. This work is funded by the Scottish Government and is designed to support the new seal licensing system. It is worthy of note that that despite being part of the Marine Scotland license requirement only 2.3% of the Grey Seals shot and returned and 4.5% of the Common Seals shot and returned were subject to necropsy (animal autopsy).
Scientists from the Rural College stated concerns that only 'clean' kills were being returned, this has been covered in the online publication by Frontiers of Marine Science, with one quote, "Marksmen may choose to only recover seals that have been shot well".
Evidence from the report of necropsies indicated seals were being shot in the neck, the jaw and included multiple shots. "Clear evidence of seals being shot in ways that do not follow the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice".
A very small number of seals, less than 10% actually predate on salmon installations and these have become known as salmon specialists. Of the shot, seals returned their stomach contents following necropsy indicate just 2 to 3% salmon studying both ear bones (otoliths) and DNA testing. Some of the shot seals returned from salmon netsmen had no salmon in their stomachs at all.
More than 35% of necropsied seals were found to be either pregnant or lactating and this creates huge welfare issues, the seal pup picture on Marine Concern's 'Contacts' page is one such pup left to die for over a week; emaciated. The Conservation of Seals Act 1970 has restrictions for the breeding seasons; the Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 however, does not.
There may be more than 50% of shot seals considered under the 'Struck and Lost' numbers that is the seals that have been shot but escape, often to die a long painful death. A conservative figure given to those that have been under reported or not reported at all is set at 25%, although this figure might be much higher. Adding these figures together with the pregnant or lactating figures takes the latest government figures up to at least 752.
Marine Concern's Method of Accounting for Seals Shot in Scotland
Marine Scotland's 'official' figures
Additional numbers added due to being pregnant and/or lactating (35%)
Additional figures added due to 'Struck and Loss' (50%)
Additional figures added due to lack of reporting, [conservative] (25%)
Seals Shot in Scotland More Likely to be 800 plus per Year!
The CRRU Report states: "The current system of self-regulation within the industry is clearly inadequate and officials in offices fail to acknowledge the shortfall in reporting. Evidently, numerous kills go unrecorded, multiple kills may not be reported, unlawful sinking and/or dumping of carcasses deliberately occurs, plus there is no accounting for "struck and loss" figures (which may account for up to 50% of all reported clean kills)".
Mind-Set.It is worth noting the 'mid-set' of those in the industry when thinking about seals being shot, as it is not your normal 'town or country' public perspective. Under the Conservation of Seals Act 1970, which is still in force in England and Wales the term 'rogue' developed. Rogue seals could be shot under the terms of the Act. The associated industries turned this around, with many stating that ALL seals were 'ROGUE' and therefore could be shot. There have been personal accounts witnessed (Pers Comms) of fish farm workers laughing about it on site and in local hostelries. Even under the new Marine (Scotland) Act 2010 this false and illegal ideology exists.
Not Listening. Marine Concern and previously Hebridean Partnership have been involved with the seal shooting issue for more than 20 years. During that time communication with the relevant authorities and the Scottish government has been attempted, with limited success. Often the criteria set by the authorities is altered to exclude 'conservation' groups, in the case of the Scottish Seals Forum a leading member of the Scottish government stated, "I have no intention of creating a balance in the group", which at the time was three to one in favour of the commercial industries.
Recent contact with the government once again called for a 'level playing field’ that includes ALL 'Stakeholders', which includes the public and NGO's. That's nothing new and is laid down in the principles of the Rio 'Earth' Summit under Agenda 21...involving communities. However, the government failed to even supply a definition of 'sustainable', a word currently being banded about by politicians like confetti.
'Sustainable', was covered in The World Commission's Report, 'Our Common Future', known as the Bruntland Report states,"Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs", however current authorities and politicians generally appear not to want to adopt this widely accepted reference when dealing with growth in their own back yards!
Currently salmon production in Scotland is far from being 'sustainable'. Closed-containment would go someway to enabling expansion of the industry without further damaging Scotland's pristine coastal waters and good reputation.
Please note that these petitions are now closed.
(Links remain while Parliamentary Debate takes place)
References Used, Further Reading and Links
Plus much more, if you would like futher information please contact Marine Concern via the Contacts page.
2018 Update on seal numbers being shot under license
The Scottish Government is required under the Special Committee on Seals (SCOS) to provide updates on the seal populations and situation. In Scotland much of this is conducted by the Seal Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) and on occasions Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH).
The figures listed for 2018, correct as of the 31/03/2018 are: -
245 Grey Seals and 113 Common or Harbour Seals.
Scot. Gov. Figs. 358
Struck & Lost (50%) 180
Pregnant or lactating (30%) 161
Unreported (25%) 175
Estimate of Seals Shot in Scotland = 875
Figures rounded and likely to exceed 900 seals shot in Scotland under the current license system administered by Marine Scotland.
Marine Concern's petition ran over Dec. ‘18 - Jan. ‘19) Calling on the Scottish Parliament to urge the Scottish Government to ensure that the salmon farming industry solely utilises a closed-containment method with full water filtering in Scottish waters.
The PUBLIC PETITIONS COMMITTEE held on Thursday 7 February 2019, the Committee agreed to write to the Scottish Government and key stakeholders to seek their views on the action called for in the petition. (PE1715 on Closed-Containment for Salmon Farms in Scotland).
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NB. All photographic stills are copyright © of Mark-MC.